The following excerpts were written by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and can be found in the publication Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Project 2061 on pages 295–297.
American Association for the Advancement of Science. Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Project 2061 ed. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1983.
Good communication is a two-way street. It is as important to receive information as to disseminate it, to understand other's ideas as to have one's own understood. (p. 295)
By the end of the 2nd grade, students should be able to:
- Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion. (p. 296)
By the end of the 5th grade, students should be able to:
- Write instructions that others can follow in carrying out a procedure. (p. 296)
By the end of the 8th grade, students should be able to:
- Organize information in simple tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal.
- Read simple tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words what they show. (p. 297)
By the end of the 12th grade, students should be able to:
- Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting investigations, operating something, or following a procedure.
- Participate in-group discussions on scientific topics by restating or summarizing accurately what others have said, asking for clarification or elaboration, and expressing alternative positions.
- Use tables, charts, and graphs in making arguments and claims in oral and written presentations. (p. 297)